SE Venezuela 1995 part 2 of birding trip report 

John van der Woude  -  www.jvanderw.nl 

See also part 1


(Continuation of Sunday 5 March 1995)

Driving the main road further down towards Villa Lola we still noted White-shouldered Tanager*, several Swallow-tailed Kite, a group of 15 Painted Parakeet, a dead Band-rumped Swift (picture taken). Afterwards, in the more arid region we saw Yellow-rumped Cacique, Smooth-billed Ani, Scarlet Macaw, Black Vulture, White-winged Swallow, Crested Caracara, Great Egret. In this savanna area, at c. km 111 (counting from Ciudad Guyana here), we had a pleasant lunch stop at Bodega Los Aceiticos (the last bodega of about 4). In the shade of a fruiting tree we drank two Manzanitas each and ate our lunch from Henry, meanwhile observing there in the tree Buff-throated Saltator, Great Kiskadee, Blue-grey Tanager, Palm Tanager, Yellow-rumped Cacique, Brown-throated Parakeet, Red-crowned Woodpecker.

At 14.30 h we left the main road at the 'Villa Lola' crossing and took the yet quieter road to El Palmar. After 3 km and some Yellow Oriole, the road went down to a large pond on the S side of the road: Anhinga, Great Egret, Little Blue Heron, Wattled Jacana, Vermillion Flycatcher, Pied Water-Tyrant, White-necked Heron, American Kestrel, Solitary Sandpiper, White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (a pair), Social Flycatcher, White-winged Swallow, Green-backed Heron, Blue-black Grassquit, Yellow-hooded Blackbird*, Neotropic Cormorant, Grassland Sparrow* (indeed a sparrow in the grass marsh), Southern Lapwing. So we feel as if back in the Llanos. A short while further is another pond with some extra species: Black-bellied Whistling Duck, White-faced Whistling Duck, Ruddy Ground-Dove, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Red-breasted Blackbird, White-tailed Hawk (2 in courtship display), Green Ibis. After stopping the engine of the car, we had some ignition problems again.

 

Before reaching El Palmar we yet saw Savanna Hawk (juv.) and the omnipresent Crested Caracara. To reach the Parador Taguapire we had to go to the central plaza and ask for the direction there. The Parador is situated near an enormous tree on the top of a low hill at the W end of the village, and the street has been named after that tree: Colina de la Ceiba. We were welcomed by the owner, mr Stofikm, and had some beer (very cold) right away. After refreshing ourselves a bit in our very hot outer room, we made a short sunset walk west: Yellow Oriole, Blue-gray Tanager, Tropical Mockingbird, Eared Dove, Barn Swallow, Common Gallinule, and several pairs of large parrots flying around to their roosts probably. A real large roost we saw of parakeets, probably Brown-throated, but too far away.

 

Monday 6 March 1995

We have one whole day for the Rio Grande area, without bothering to see the Harpy. The area forms part of the Sierra Imataca Forest Reserve, and there is a lot of forest left indeed, but not so much as we hoped, at least not along the track we choose to bird. This is the track that goes to the bridge over the Rio Grande, and quite some miles beyond. Had we had another day, we would have birded the other, northern track, the one that goes to the former Harpy site. But we wouldn't be surprised if there the logging has reached an equally far stage.

To reach the Rio Grande bridge site, you have to go West from El Palmar for about 25 km on a rather bad, but managable road. Near the end, there are two bifurcations, the first one you have to take left, the second one right, as the Swedish tour leader had pointed out to us at Henry's. Along the road we saw somewhere the two Caracara's that we had missed so far, Yellow-headed Caracara and Black Caracara*, fighting over some food, and we heard the Striped Cuckoo.

One km or so after the tarmac ends is a Piha lek at a wide side track to the right. Here we had several Screaming Piha indeed, but didn't manage to see one. Meanwhile we did see Lineated Woodpecker and Crimson-crested Woodpecker*. We identified the sound of Great Tinamou*. Other species around were Blue-headed Parrot, Red-billed Toucan, Black-necked Aracari, Streaked Flycatcher. We often heared Leptotila doves here as well in other forests.

Before crossing the bridge we further saw Green Aracari, Plumbeous Kite and Black-tailed Tityra. There is a chain at the other side of the bridge, but there happened to be a man from El Palmar, probably the one that can show you the Harpy (we met him at the huge tree during our walk the previous evening), and he let us through with our car. As the dust road was quite good at the moment, we went on by car for short intervals. (If there is nobody, you might ask at the loggers camp 500 m further on to open the chain.) Most of the birds however we saw in fact at the small clearing right after the bridge and some 300 m beyond: Violaceous Euphonia, Laughing Falcon, Barn Swallow, Orange-winged Parrot, Greater Yellow-headed Vulture*, Long-tailed Tyrant, Mealy Parrot, Turquoise Tanager, Bay-headed Tanager, Red-rumped Cacique, Painted Parakeet, Yellow-tufted Woodpecker, Green Oropendula*, Magpie Tanager.

At a small pool to the N some 1.5 km from the bridge we added Red-fan Parrot* (2 in a nest hole in a bare tree), a very agressive Crimson Topaz, and a Lesser Seed-Finch. A bit further is a (partly secondary?) forest trail to the S, starting at a white sign. We walked this down for about 400 m, until a spot with many strangely curling plank roots (varzea forest?). We had some singing ('Nicky the Greek') Tiny Tyrant-Manakin*, a too fast tanager flock, a glimpse of a dark 'chicken' of c. 40 cm (probably Great Tinamou). We found a nesthole at 1 m height, with eggs - on the way back we identified the bird as Olivaceous Woodcreeper. We heard White-tailed Trogon, Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, Buff-throated Woodcreeper, and saw Golden-spangled Piculet* and an enormous dragonfly of 20 cm, completely blue.

At 11 h we were back at the car and went further East for maybe 10 km, hoping to see more undisturbed forest. But the forest remains the same, and this didn't produce so much, probably also because of the midday hours. Most species did we see near the pools along the track: Red&Green Macaw (2 courtship feeding at only 40 m from us), Gray-breasted Martin*, Yellow-backed Tanager*, and a completely black flycatcher of about 13 cm (most probably not a Black-Tyrant, but an immature Long-tailed Tyrant). We saw a bird of tanager size, completely yellow below, yellow rump too, blackish upper side, white fore-head, and a wingbar: were we misled by a Tropical Parula? Further we had a pair of White-shouldered Tanager, Tropical Parula, and a truly large Giant Cowbird*. The mysterious Red-throated Caracara (6 together) crossed our path again.

We drove back to the river and there happened to be again somebody just opening the chain for his own car, so we could pass the bridge directly. We parked the car at the other side of the bridge, in sight of somebody working at the generator house. We took the often mentioned trail W of the narrow Rio 'Grande' going N, and soon saw two Sunbittern strolling on the opposite sandy shore 20 m from us. Three Black-necked Aracari crossed the river there. A sort of gekko stood erect on a trunk in the river. Amazon Kingfisher closely followed the middle of the river. Sitting on the shore somewhere (300 m from the bridge?) we observed quite some birds on the opposite side: Northern Waterthrush, White-necked Thrush, Long-tailed Hermit* and Black-eared Fairy both diving repeatedly to the water surface (bathing?), and we heard a trogon-like bird song of 20-25 times 'kuk' in 5 sec, the last two notes a bit longer and descending (two birds in duet song; not found on the trogons tape). There too appeared a flock with at least Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper, and a Veniliornis woodpecker with a light spot between bill and eye (Little Woodpecker?).

Driving back towards El Palmar, we stopped for a while at c. 1 km from the bridge, where there is a large clearing to the N, fenced off by high bushes: Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Pied Puffbird* (2 together sitting on a branch for a long time), Swallow-tailed Kite (3 together), Black-headed Parrot* 3 crossing the road with the lowering sun on their impudent faces, White-chested Emerald*, Yellow-bellied Seedeater, and a hummer with a long straight bill, short tail, and white on chin and throat: female Long-billed Starthroat?

During the trip back to El Palmar, we saw several roosts of Brown-throated Parakeet, and arrived at the parador at c. 18 h, well in time for some cool beer.


Tuesday 7 March 1995

Today we had to change from the El Palmar region to the Rio Cauro valley, and wanted to change the bad car at P. Ordaz airport in between. During the breakfast at mr. Stofikm I noted a kingbird at the other side of the road, and checked it - it seemed a new one, the White-throated Kingbird, but back home from I learn from Ridgely & Tudor that Tropical's throat can seem white as well. Along the - direct - road to Upata, again through savanna-like scenery we noted many parrots (typical for the early morning), especially Orange-winged Parrot. Many Crested Caracara were active, as well as a Yellow-headed Caracara and a Savanna Hawk. In a pond we saw a Least Grebe. We ended this region with the same species as we began more South - Yellow Oriole.

Hornbuckle mentions in his report a dust road 200 m N of the gas station N of Upata (along the main road to C. Guyana). We went there too, and parked the car at the gate of the old orchard c. 150 m from the main road. From there we walked just 100 m into the orchard area, along the same dust road. The surroundings are wooded savanna, and this orchard is turning into that again, but with several interesting trees for birds of course. We saw Burnished-buff Tanager (a group of 8), an unidentified Furnariid (long tail, grayish throat, light eye-stripe, redbrown on head and shoulders), Tropical Gnatcatcher, Black-crested Antshrike*, Red-crowned Woodpecker, Tropical Parula, Great Kiskadee, White-naped Xenopsaris* (all details fitting, also the small spot behind the bill), White-lined Tanager, Green-rumped Parrotlet.

Then the inevitable dip of the trip began: trying to get another car. The brakes are really too bad, and the starter doesn't work sometimes. Right at the last alcabala before C. Guyana I put off the motor when the police was asking some questions (this may have been related to the border troubles with Colombia just then), and we had to push the car to get it started again - with the policeman behind the wheel. Budget had no car left at P. Ordaz airport, nor could find any other car for us at one of the many other car rental agencies there. They even suggested that we continue the trip by bus. We didn't give up, and in the end they could persuade the Budget office in Ciudad Bolivar (after several calls) to give us another car. Driving to C. Bolivar is no problem - a quiet four-lane highway. The airport of C. Bolivar is inside the town and easy to find. There we had to wait an hour till the new car would arrive at 15 h, with the english speaking boss (Raquela). In the meantime, on the basis of our experiences with the old car (the Fiat Premio), we had decided that we would better not drive on to Caracas after Rio Caura, but instead return to C. Bolivar and take the airplane from there to Caracas. So we bought a ticket already for Friday night ('plenty of seats yet'). The new car was much and much better, a Ford Festiva automat. But now it was rather late already (16 h), so we wondered if we would make it till the lodge at the end of the Caura valley road. The road is good, and we drove fast, noticing a King Vulture yet.

At dusk we entered the Caura valley road, which appears to be only asfalted for certain stretches. Just before entering this road we saw a Lesser Nighthawk with its low and unsteady flight. On the Caura valley road we saw several bright orange-eyed Pauraque. Also, in the near darkness we flushed a group of about five big birds, loudly trumpeting, with a bustard-like profile, but with deep wing beats, so probably not screamers.

At 20.15 h we arrived at the tiny village of Las Trincheras, and found the lodge. The warden Juan had not expected us, and was a bit surprised by the voucher; probably the business is run from Caracas. Nevertheless, he and his wife were willing to make a dinner for us. So, after a beer, and a shower in our cottage, we sat dining at a table beneath a tree. The food was delicious, and we wondered what would be the scenery around.


Wednesday 8 March 1995

The first thing in the early morning we heard from our cottage were Howler monkeys, soon followed by Little Chachalaca*. We got up at 6, and were surprised by the view from the cottage and from the terrace where we had been dining the night before - a vast and splendid river view. Looking down on the river we saw White-winged Swallow, Blue-and-white Swallow, Anhinga, Amazon Kingfisher, and some ibises. Breakfast would be at 8, so we had planned to walk a while back on the broad dust road we had come yesterday. It leads through nice semi-open woodland. The tiny village itself is half wooded as well, as are the grounds of the lodge.

Soon we saw many egrets and terns passing high overhead, apparently returning from their roosts somewhere North. Dozens of Great Egret were accompanied by smaller white herons, equally by dozens. We expected them to be Snowy, but they had not the yellow feet nor the dark bill, so they might all have been immature Little Blue, the bill being too long and slender again for Cattle Egret. Only two adult Little Blue Heron were amongst them.

 

At the enormous breakfast - the warden Juan proudly pointing at the river view: 'nuestra television!' (photo) - we made up the list of species seen this morning already. Apart from the above mentioned, we saw from or at the lodge: Black Nunbird, female Black-throated Mango* (incessantly attacking other birds around, notably the kingfisher), Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Swallowwing, Turquoise Tanager, Hepatic Tanager* (really orange), Palm Tanager, Blue-gray Tanager, Olivaceous Cormorant, Black Caracara, Yellow-rumped Cacique, Muscovy Duck, Yellow-headed Parrot, 1 macaw crossing the river, Silverbeaked Tanager. During the pre-breakfast walk on the dust road we had added to these: Plumbeous Kite (building a nest high in a big tree), Blue-crowned Motmot, Long-billed Gnatwren*, Greater Pewee, Blue-headed Parrot, Violaceous Jay*, Cayenne Jay, Red-billed Toucan, Buff-throated Woodcreeper (heard), a flycatcher all yellow below up to the bill (but not a Cattle Tyrant), Coraya Wren (heard), Lesser Seedfinch, Yellow-bellied Seedeater, Bananaquit.

From 10.30 till 12.45 h we birded a few miles of the road N of the Puerto Cabello junction - that is where the real primary forest reserve is (going on to the N for another 10 km or so, up to the Rio Urbani). Here the birding is less easy, but rewarding: Violaceous Jay, Green Oropendula, Caica Parrot*, Purple-throated Fruitcrow, Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (well lit - the wrists a bit darker), and we heard Buff-throated Woodcreeper, White-tailed Trogon, Screaming Piha. A secret antbird cost a lot of time - completely dark gray except for white tips and band in the tail: Gray Antbird*. Then we saw a small flock, too fast again: White-shouldered Tanager, and two unidentified birds, both about 12 cm, one with erect tail, yellowish belly and stout bill, the other grayish all over, with two lighter wing bars. Further species were two Red&Green Macaw, Yellow-backed Tanager, Black Nunbird, Streaked Flycatcher and Ruddy Pigeon.

 

After the equally luxurious lunch on the terrace and a short nap in the room with open windows on all four sides, we went on a motored dugout canoe trip on the Rio Caura (photo). This had been suggested by the Caracas guy who had just returned with a group from a two-day canoe journey up river, and it was arranged through Juan. For Bs 2000 Carlos (the older one - there is also a younger Carlos) took us for two hours on a magnificent journey upstream between the boulder block islands and sand bars, and back partly through a narrow and shallow lagoon-like part of the river behind the opposite shore as seen from the lodge (so this shore is in fact a very long island). Carlos is keen on slowing down as soon as you raise your binoculars. His little daughter sat in front. This trip produced (totals in brackets): Anhinga (7), Olivaceous Cormorant (12), Maguari Stork, American Woodstork, Large-billed Tern (5, all very aggressive, diving down upon us, especially on the little girl in front - and they have a large bill really), Least Tern (5), Osprey (2, 1 with fish), Amazon Kingfisher (7), Ringed Kingfisher (2), Plumbeous Kite (6), imm. Great Black Hawk, Greater Ani* (1 - with its bill, eye and size appearing even more mysterious than the other two ani's), Hoatzin (a tree with c. 20), White-necked Heron (2), Great Egret (only 1), Snowy Egret (1), Little Blue Heron (1), Capped Heron (3), Rufescent Tiger-Heron (2), Green-backed Heron (1), Pied Lapwing (1), Spotted Sandpiper (1), ibis (6), Sunbittern (1; this year we make up for all the ones we missed in other years), macaw (2+3), Violaceous Jay (1), Red-billed Toucan (1), and near the northern outlet of the lagoon-like branch 5 White-banded Swallow, birds that I very much longed to see.

Before dinner (late today for some reason) we dared to make a walk in the dusk/dark back on the dust road for 1.5 km or so. Once outside the village, there was a Pauraque calling nearly every 100 m. One came very close, agitated by our easy imitation of its call. Its large orange eye is clearly visible also without a torch or headlight. In the darkness, we also heard a low sound that 'might' have been of a Jaguar…  

 

Thursday 9 March 1995

This morning we skipped breakfast, or tried to do so, in order to be earlier in the forest reserve N of the P. Cabello junction. Juan and his wife were up nevertheless and insisted on giving us a cup of tea, and gave some take-away food (we had asked that the night before). About two km from the village the semi-open woodland with clearings has some fine high tree plots. Here we sighted the bird that we heard yesterday night already, the sound appears to be of the wings ('prrrrrt'): Blue-throated Piping-Guan*, high in the trees. At 7 we were again in the forest reserve and went straight on to the northern half. Driving the smooth asfalt road (photo) at very low speed (automat!) and with open windows, we discovered several Screaming Piha leks. We managed to see a male White-tailed Trogon and heard three more around: also a sort of lek? Other species were Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Olive Oropendula* (4 together in a nesting tree), an unidentified bird of about 30 cm with broad and short dark wings, short tail, barred underparts and red at the head (juv. Fruitcrow?), Black-necked Aracari, Black-eared Fairy, Black-tailed Tityra, Painted Parakeet (a group of 10 feeding), Golden-headed Manakin, White-shouldered Tanager, Green Honeycreeper, Purple Honeycreeper. Most of these birds did we see in little flocks feeding on low trees with fruits on top of long thin branches with elongated leaves hanging down.

Then we managed to see an antbird once again: White-browed Antbird*, its large white eye-brow being very distinctive indeed. Further species were Turquoise Tanager, Black-headed Parrot, several Black Nunbird, Blue Dacnis (female feeding a young), Red-throated Caracara (3 together), but the highlight here was Grey-winged Trumpeter*, two walking slowly across the road at 40 m from where we were standing to eat some of our take-away breakfast.

We went on to the (open) savanna North and saw there a family of Crested Bobwhite, a Savanna Hawk, a pair of White-tailed Hawk, pairs of Eared Dove, a group of Burnished-buff Tanager, Fork-tailed Palm-Swift*, Tropical Mockingbird, Southern Rough-winged Swallow. We drove on to Maripe to fill the gas tank and to have a look at the bridge over the Rio Caura. At the bridge we only saw Common Gallinule, Pied Water-Tyrant, and some herons. Back at our cottage, longing for a shower, we had to flush a Green-tailed Jacamar* in order to enter.

After the late lunch we took a short nap, and went out on foot at c. 16 h with a local, Antonio, and his little brother or nephew, to visit a sort of lagoon SE of the village. It is a pool with some interesting vegetation and several trees standing in the water, the water being the remainder of the wet period. Our guide was in fact guided himself by the little boy, apparantly Antonio had not been there for a long time. This was the first time of the whole trip that my shoes got muddy. We were rewarded with near sightings of Hoatzin (25, agitated of course), Muscovy Duck, Wattled Jacana, Black-collared Hawk, Solitary Sandpiper, Yellow-tufted Woodpecker, Great Egret, White-necked Heron, Black Nunbird, Amazonian Kingfisher.

We walked all around the pool (about 400 m circumference), Antonio using his machete and warning for some trees that should better not be touched. He pointed out a huge print of a cat foot, and identified it as puma. We thought with some fear of the supposed mammal that we heard yesterday night nearby, along the dust road. Via the local cemetery, a round semi-open spot in the forest of about 20 m diameter, mostly with very basic wooden crosses, we entered the dust road again. This is at c. 0.5 km from the village, where the road has a sandy triangular spot on the East side. Antonio led us by some huge boulders with trees on top of them. A Crimson-crested Woodpecker concluded this slow-birding but pleasant walk at c. 17.45 h.


Friday 10 March 1995

This night we heard a Great Tinamou somewhere in the surroundings of the lodge. Today we went on a pre-breakfast tour again, this time by car, in order to bird a bit further from the village, esp. near the site where we had seen the piping-guan yesterday. This is the last 0.5 km or so S of the junction to Jabillal, with more wood than closer to the village. A Long-tailed Hermit was hovering at the base of a long flower (do they sip from the outside?). Little Chachalaca did we see now too. After a Long-tailed Tyrant we heard the strange wing rattling of the Blue-throated Piping-Guan again. They appear to do this with wings stretched (in flight), so probably with the primaries against each other. We saw them flying to and fro like this several times.

Further species at this site were Black-spotted Barbet, 1 Green-tailed Jacamar near 3 Brown Jacamar*, Black Nunbird again, Coraya Wren heard and a glimpse seen, a Capuchin monkey, Yellow-headed Parrot talking like children, Violaceous Jay, Blue-headed Parrot, 7 Red&Green Macaws crossing the road very nearby, Painted Parakeet, Black-necked Aracari, Red-billed Toucan, a group of 8 Purple-throated Fruitcrow quietly hopping around in a tree, Channel-billed Toucan, and at c. 60 m from the junction to Jabillal, leks of Golden-headed Manakin and Screaming Piha.

After the last breakfast at the lodge, we said goodbye, and got the take-away lunch we had asked for. At 9.50 h we were in the primary forest again. After a White-crowned Manakin and two King Vulture we got a flat tyre, but were astonished ourselves how quickly we had changed it. Nevertheless, we should have the spare tyre repaired before returning all the way to Ciudad Bolivar. But first we met the two birders indeed. We saw a flock containing at least Flame-crested Tanager*, Golden-spangled Piculet, and a Veniliornis woodpecker. Where the forest ends, at the Rio Urbani, N shore, we searched some time for a last new manakin for us, and found them also: White-bearded Manakin*. Manakins are hard to disturb, they will easily come back to their lek, so you can see them from very near.

We set off towards C. Bolivar again. On the outward journey we had seen a nice elongated Moriche palm forest along an old brook, and found it again after some 10 km on the main road. Here flew several Fork-tailed Palm-Swift around, and we discovered in the shimmering midday heat a Russet-throated Puffbird* in one of the small trees of the very open orchard besides the palms. A large parakeet-like bird flew across our heads, with a sound different from the ordinary parakeets (Brown-throated), and with a rather rolling flight. This might have been Red-shouldered Macaw, typical for these palms.

At a village some 10 km further East we had the tyre repaired, and took a lemonita at the stall named after the tyre workshop. We gave the two tyre man pepsi's as well, also because we had asked them if they could help us straight away. We didn't have so much spare time, but couldn't take the risk of another flat tyre without having a spare tyre.

At 17 h we arrived at the airport of C. Bolivar. It now appeared that after buying the flight ticket we should have made a real reservation too. This notwithstanding the fact that on our tickets the date and time of the flight had already been filled in, even with the mark 'OK'. Now we were on the long waiting list, because the plane was fully booked (Friday night frenzy). In the end, all was really OK because only after the arrival of the plane they knew precisely how many seats were still left (the plane came from P. Ordaz).

At Caracas national airport (with half an hour delay) there appeared to be still an ALM flight to Curacao later that night. So we changed our tickets to that flight, in stead of Saturday morning. Thus we had a sudden end of a marvellous trip.

 Back to the top_of_the_report of this part. Or to part 1: verp95p1.html.  

Species list

(Names as in the field guide of Venezuela. Ordering too, following the colour plates generally.)

ED = El Dorado lowlands (forests) up to km 92
ES = Escalera (forests)
GS = Gran Sabana (savanna)
IF = Imataca Forest Reserve at El Palmar
UP = Savanna Puerto Ordaz, Upata, El Palmar, Villa Lola
SC = Savanna NE of lower Rio Caura
CF = Caura Forest Reserve (at lower Rio Caura)
RC = lower Rio Caura & secundary forest

Great Tinamou IF, RC
Little Tinamou ED
Variegated Tinamou ES
Crested Bobwhite SC
Rufous-vented Chachalaca PT
Little Chachalaca RC
Blue-throated Piping-Guan RC

Least Grebe UP
Neotropic Cormorant UP, RC
Anhinga UP, RC

Capped Heron RC
Rufescent Tiger-Heron RC
Green-backed Heron UP, RC
White-necked Heron UP, RC
Great Egret UP, RC
Snowy Egret UP, RC
Little Blue Heron UP, RC
Maguari stork GS, RC
American Wood-Stork RC
Green Ibis UP

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck UP
White-faced Whistling-Duck UP
Muscovy Duck ED, RC

Osprey RC
Black Vulture UP
King Vulture ED, SC, CF
Turkey Vulture UP
Greater Yellow-headed VuIture IF, CF
Am Swallow-tailed Kite ED, ES, UP, IF
Double-toothed Kite ES
Plumbeous Kite ED, IF, RC
Yellow-headed Caracara UP
Crested Caracara UP
Black Caracara UP, RC
Red-throated Caracara ED ,ES ,IF ,CF
Laughing Falcon IF
Roadside Hawk ES
Crane Hawk ED
Savanna Hawk UP, SC
Black-collared Hawk RC
Gray Hawk ED
White Hawk ES
White-tailed Hawk UP, SC
Great Black Hawk RC
Harpy Eagle ED
Black Hawk-Eagle ES
Bat Falcon ED
American Kestrel UP
Vermiculated Screech-Owl ES

Lesser Nighthawk SC
Pauraque SC, RC

Grey-winged Trumpeter CF
Wattled Jacana ED, UP, RC
Common Gallinule UP, RC
Sunbittern ED, IF, RC

Pied Lapwing RC
Southern Lapwing UP
Solitary Sandpiper ES, UP, RC

Large-billed Tern UPRC
Least Tern RC

Pale-vented Pigeon ED
Ruddy Pigeon CF
Ruddy Ground-Dove UP
Eared Dove UP, SC

Scarlet Macaw UP
Red&Green Macaw ED, ES, IF, RC, CF
Brown-throated Parakeet UP
Painted Parakeet ED, IF, RC, CF
Fiery-shouldered Parakeet ES
Green-rumped Parrotlet PT, ED, UP
Black-headed Parrot IF, CF
Caica Parrot CF
Blue-headed Parrot ED, IF, RC
Dusky Parrot UP
Yellow-headed Parrot ED, RC
Orange-winged Parrot ED, IF, RC
Mealy Parrot ED, IF
Redfan Parrot IF

Striped Cuckoo UP
Squirrel Cuckoo ES, UP
Smooth-billed Ani UP
Greater Ani RC
Hoatzin RC

White-collared Swift ES
Band-rumped Swift ED
Fork-tailed Palm-Swift SC

Brown Violet-ear ES
Black-throated Mango RC
Peacock Coquette ES
White-chested Emerald IF
Fork-tailed Woodnymph ES, RC
White-tailed Goldenthroat ES
Crimson Topaz ED, IF
Black-eared Fairy ED, IF, CF
Long-billed Starthroat ED
Long-tailed Hermit IF, RC
Reddish Hermit ED

White-tailed Trogon ED, IF, CF
Masked Trogon ES

Blue-crowned Motmot RC
Brown Jacamar RC
Green-tailed Jacamar RC
Paradise Jacamar ED

Amazon Kingfisher IF, RC
Ringed Kingfisher ED, UP, RC

Pied Puffbird IF
Russet-throated Puffbird SC
Black Nunbird ED, RC, CF
Swallowwing ED, ES, RC
Black-spotted Barbet ED, RC

Black-necked Aracari ED, IF, RC, CF
Green Aracari ED, IF
Guianan Toucanet ED
Channel-billed Toucan ED, RC
Red-billed Toucan ED, IF, RC

Golden-olive Woodpecker ES
Red-crowned Woodpecker UP
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker ED, IF, RC
Golden-collared Woodpecker IF
Lineated Woodpecker ED, IF
Crimson-crested Woodpec IF, RC
Golden-spangled Piculet IF, CF

Olivaceous Woodcreeper ED, IF, CF
Wedge-billed Woodcreeper ED, IF
Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper ED, IF
Buff-throated Woodcreeper ED, IF, RC, CF
Lineated Woodcreeper ES

Pale-breasted Spinetail ES
Plain Xenops ED

Black-crested Antshrike UP
Rufous-bellied Antwren ED
Spot-winged Antbird ED
White-browed Antbird CF
Dusky Antbird ED
Gray Antbird CF

Red-banded Fruiteater ES
Screaming Piha ED, IF, RC, CF
Rose-collared Piha ES
Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock ES
Purple-throated Fruitcrow RC, CF
Capuchinbird ED
White Bellbird ES
Bearded Bellbird ES
Black-tailed Tityra ED, IF, CF
White-naped Xenopsaris UP

Golden-headed Manakin ED, RC, CF
Scarlet-horned Manakin ES
White-crowned Manakin ED, CF
White-fronted Manakin ES
White-bearded Manakin CF
Tiny Tyrant-Manakin IF

Tropical Kingbird ED, GS
Social Flycatcher ED, UP
Rusty-margined Flycatcher ED
Variegated Flycatcher ED
Streaked Flycatcher ED, UP, IF, CF
Great Kiskadee UP
Vermilion Flycatcher UP
Cliff Flycatcher ES
Gray-crowned Flycatcher ES
Sierran Elaenia GS
Greater Pewee ES, RC
Grayish Mourner ED
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant UP
Pied Water-Tyrant UP, RC
Long-tailed Tyrant ED, IF, RC
Fork-tailed Flycatcher UP

Gray-breasted Martin IF
Southern Rough-winged GS, SC
Tawny-headed Swallow GS
Blue-and-white Swallow ES, RC
White-banded Swallow RC
Black-collared Swallow UP
White-winged Swallow ED, UP, RC
Barn Swallow UP, IF

Violaceous Jay RC, CF
Cayenne Jay ED, RC

Coraya Wren ES, RC
Flutist Wren ES

Tropical Mockingbird GS, UP, SC

Black-hooded Thrush ES
Bare-eyed Thrush ED
White-necked Thrush ED, ES, IF

Long-billed Gnatwren RC
Tropical Gnatcatcher UP
Rufous-browed Peppershrike ES
Red-eyed Vireo ED
Tepui Greenlet ES
Blackburnian Warbler ES
Tropical Parula ES, UP, IF
Yellow Warbler UP
Black-and-white Warbler ED, ES
Blackburnian Warbler ES
Northern Waterthrush PT, IF
Masked Yellowthroat ED
Slate-throated Redstart ES
White-faced Redstart ES (see text)
American Redstart GS
Two-banded Warbler ES
Bananaquit ES, RC

Green Honeycreeper ED, ES, CF
Purple Honeycreeper ED, CF
Red-legged Honeycreeper ED
Blue Dacnis ED, CF

Paradise Tanager ES
Swallow-Tanager ED
Burnished-buff Tanager GS, UP, SC
Turquoise Tanager ED, IF, RC, CF
Bay-headed Tanager ES, IF
Black-headed Tanager ES
Spotted Tanager ED
Speckled Tanager ES, GS
Yellow-bellied Tanager ES
Blue-naped Chlorophonia ES
Violaceous Euphonia ED, ES, IF
Orange-bellied Euphonia ES
Rufous-bellied Euphonia ES
Yellow-backed Tanager IF, CF
Blue-gray Tanager ED, UP, RC
Palm Tanager ED, UP, RC
Hepatic Tanager RC
Silver-beaked Tanager ED, RC
White-lined Tanager UP
Red-shouldered Tanager GS
White-shouldered Tanager ED, IF, CF
Flame-crested Tanager CF
Olive-backed Tanager ES
Magpie Tanager ED, IF
Black-faced Tanager GS

Green Oropendula IF, CF
Olive Oropendula CF
Crested Oropendula ED
Yellow-rumped Cacique UP, RC
Red-rumped Cacique ED, IF
Golden-tufted Grackle ES
Giant Cowbird IF
Yellow-hooded Blackbird UP
Yellow Oriole UP
Red-breasted Blackbird UP

Slate-coloured Grosbeak ED
Buff-throated Saltator UP
Blue-black Grassquit ED, UP
Lesser Seed-Finch ED, UP, IF, RC
Yellow-bellied Seedeater IF, RC
Ruddy-breasted Seedeater GS
Rufous-collared Sparrow GS
Grassland Sparrow UP
Hooded Siskin GS