Venezuela NE and NW, 25 Dec. 1997 - 13 Jan. 1998 
Birding trip report, part 2 (Northwest)
John van der Woude  - 
See sketchy
map with places mentioned.
The next day (4 Jan.) we changed from NE to NW Venezuela. First we had an easily obtained shared taxi back to Maturin, the nearest big city for Caripe, for 5 dollar each (1.5 hours ride). At noon we flew to Caracas/Maiquetia, where we changed money for the second and last time (we often could pay hotels by credit card this year). In the late afternoon we had a further flight to Merida, which is situated in a rather narrow Andes valley (photo right), so the landing is not something to forget, especially as the plane first has to turn in that valley! Just before sunset we arrived by taxi (8 dollar) at La Casona de Tabay, a nice and very old farm-like hotel (17 dollar), some 8 km from Merida and close to the village of Tabay from where you can get to the Pico Humboldt trail, famous among birders as well as mountaineers. In the last daylight we ticked the Rusty Flowerpiercer in the outer hotel court, and later heard the Rufous Nightjar.
At dawn the next morning we easily had a minibus to the plaza of Tabay, bought some food there and had a por puesto 4WD jeep (half a dollar per person) to the start of the famous Pico Humboldt trail, at the so-called Area recreativa La Mucuy, at about 2000 m above sea level. These jeeps line up from about 7 a.m., behind an official sign there at the plaza, for the many mountaineers that use this forest trail to get into the alpine world of the lakes and the glaciers. We intended to bird the entrance area of the trail as well as the lower part of the trail this first day, and the upper (still mainly wooded) part of the trail the second day. Near the start of the trail, around the guard station of this Sierra Nevada National Park (sign in and pay a few cents), we first noted a.o. Long-tailed Sylph, Merida Sunangel, Orange-backed Nightingale-thrush, Booted Racket-tail, Great Thrush, Moustached Brush-Finch, Russet-crowned Warbler, Grey Hawk. The hummers, notably the endemic Merida Sunangel, were active in the upper part of some huge eucalyptus trees, which we normally don't like so much, but this is different, with the blue splashes of the sylph and an occasional flag of the racket-tail.
Just before entering the trail proper at a wooden gate, we met the only other birder of this whole trip in Venezuela, Jurgen Beckers, a Belgian who divided his time here between birding and paragliding. He sometimes combines both hobbies, like in Spain once, soaring up in a group of vultures there! I think he secretly hoped to do so with Condors as well, later on his trip in South America. He was interrupting his engineering career for a year or so (with guaranteed return on his job), and would stay several months in Northern South America, living as cheap as possible and reasonable. Meanwhile, Jurgen is active as bird guide in Venezuela and Colombia for several years now, see
We slowly walked the trail up some 3 km, and first observed Andean Solitaire, Common Bush-Tanager, Montane (Spot-crowned) Woodcreeper, Blackburnian Warbler. The forest is a splendid sort of cloud forest. The birds seem not to be frightened by people here, as mountaineers pass by every 15 minutes or so, silently working their way up with their heavy backpacks. So in the undergrowth we saw very nearby Chestnut-crowned Antpitta, Slaty-backed Nightingale-thrush, Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch. Further species here were Olive-backed Woodcreeper, White-throated Tyrannulet, Beryl-spangled Tanager, White-fronted Whitestart (endemic), Black-crowned Warbler, Rufous Spinetail, Andean Guan (in a tree at 10 m), Bluish Flowerpiercer, Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant, Golden-headed Quetzal (heard only). We still hoped for other flowerpiercers, but even after returning to the entrance area (famous for them) we did not see them, there are not enough flowers now. Back in Tabay in the late afternoon we decided to have a pizza (good one, at Rinaldi) in stead of having another meal at the small restaurant of our hotel, as we were not impressed by the latter's cooking.

Then, the next morning some bad luck occurred. First I missed a shoe of the pair of trekking shoes that I had left outside the (rather small) room. It was found back only later that day by the servants at a spot where one of the dogs often hide things. My gym shoes would do on the Humboldt trail too I thought, but I barely needed them because Nollie sprained her ankle when we left the hotel this morning, on the nice but uneven cobblestone road going down to the main road. Still, she thought it was a minor sprain only, and we would be able to do some birding at the entrance area of the Humboldt trail again. So we did, and this time we left the jeep at the bridge across a mountain stream (photo above) where the recreation area begins.
This was a good decision as we finally ticked our first (lifer) Torrent Duck there (photo above), a female, which in this species is as remarkable as the male. At the same time, on the other side of the bridge there was a White-capped Dipper. Other species in this recreation area, an open area with some shrubs and low trees, were White-banded Tyrannulet, Grey-breasted Wood-wren, Black-and-white Warbler, Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Collared Inca, Masked Trogon. The hummers were active again in the eucalyptus trees, and now we took ample time to discover even the splendid but very tiny Rufous-shafted Woodstar, going around the tree like a bumble bee rather than like a bird.
In this whole area up to the start of the Humboldt trail proper, there are many opportunities for birding at an easy pace. In this way we managed to tick some more species, like Black-throated Green Warbler, Rusty-faced Parrot, Hook-billed Kite, before it became clear that the sprain was not so small as thought. So by noon we were back in the hotel, and decided to give the ankle a true rest, while watching the glaciers and the Chestnut-collared Swifts from the outer hotel court (photo). Later in the afternoon I went birding in the secondary forests above the hotel. Just to the right of the hotel there is a trail that first goes down a bit and then up again. Following this I first passed some houses and then came into more and more of this dense secondary forest. On the highest parts the forest seemed even rather natural. The trail goes straight uphill. Here I saw White-tipped Swift, Olive-backed Woodcreeper, Swainson's Thrush, and my first ant swarm with fleeing beetles etcetera (but no antbirds around). This area is not very good for birding, but on the way back I had a close (3 m) encounter with a frantically feeding male Booted Racket-tail. Moreover, I had an incredible encounter, far too brief to be really sure, with a large black bird with a white abdomen. At least that is what I remember having seen in a flash. After that I heard the bird walking away over the dead leaves but I lost him. In fact this can possibly only have been the endangered Helmeted Curassow. If you go to La Casona, have a try (and let me know if you found it please)!
The next morning I went again uphill, in a bit different direction, via a clear trail that forks off from the main trail to the left, and then I followed the newly constructed pipeline for water supply. Along this pipe line you stay just above canopy level of the trees in the small valley here, and I noted species like Black-headed Tanager, White-lined Tanager, Rusty Flowerpiercer, Moustached Brush-Finch, Green Jay, Grey Hawk, Yellow-legged Thrush. N.'s ankle was still swollen too much for walking so at the end of the morning I went into Merida in order to try to hire a car at the airport, which is right in the city. No car was available now at noon, but maybe later on the day cars would return. I went into town and came back by 2 p.m., and waited there till at about 3.30 p.m. a Budget car came available indeed. In the meantime five other parties had to be disappointed when they asked for a car at the three companies. Luckily not one of those five parties had the patience I had, so out I went with a rather new Ford Festiva with airco, for 80 dollars a day, big business! The insurance conditions however had not gone that terribly bad as Budget had said in Holland, which had been one of the reasons for trying more public transport this time. Now we had new chances too, especially for more roadside birding. In the late afternoon, also to check the quality of the car, we drove some 15 km up into the main valley from Tabay to the NE. There, at a bridge we saw White-capped Dipper and Torrent Tyrannulet. We had a delicious trout the specialty of the region at the restaurant called Juan Chocolate, just outside Tabay in the direction of Merida. The owner is a Portuguese and we had a nice chat with him.
At dawn the next morning (8 Jan.) we set off to the NW for the famous Azulita road. It was hard to refrain from stopping along the (rather bad) road across the broad pass, but picked up a Yellow-backed Oriole and a Least Grebe nonetheless. But then, steeply descending into the Maracaibo basin, we were rewarded with a still early visit to one of the most scenic birding roads we have ever been. The road is all hairpin bends between tall cloud forest, hence the nickname Green Chapel for this 5 km stretch. Because of the steep general slope of the area there are many chances to have the canopy at eye level. The rather level first 300 m of this road were a good start: Blue-and-black Tanager, Olive-striped Flycatcher, Azara's Spinetail, Greater Pewee, Glossy-black Thrush, Rose-headed Parakeet (a specialty here), Emerald Toucanet. Further species in this Green Chapel were Hook-billed Kite, Chestnut-crowned Antpitta, Collared Inca, Montane Foliage-gleaner, Speckled Humminigbird, Chestnut-bellied Thrush, Orange-bellied Euphonia.
There was a rather hidden trail into the forest, from about the 3rd hairpin. A while further down is a clear path going to the right. After the Green Chapel we visited the forest remains known as the University forest, in the pass area above, but saw practically no birds there, so we ended with a hot chocolate at the café on top of the pass. Below the village of La Azulita we drove on to the Panamerican highway bordering the Andes to the NW, and turned right in order to go to the valley of the Rio Frio, indicated by MLG as a possible new birding destination. Right where the paved road into this lower Andes valley starts is a hotel/restaurant, called Rasomar. We stayed here one night in order to be able to bird the valley (see photo) from dawn the next day, despite the low standard of the hotel (the food was better than the 12 dollar room, but the car was parked safely). After arrival at about 4 p.m. we went out to explore the valley shortly, and at the end of the 6 km road we saw within a few minutes some of the most important birds of this region: Crimson-backed Tanager, Yellow-tailed Oriole, Black-mandibled Toucan, Black-chested Jay.
The next morning we parked the car at the last house along the road and went up the mule trail that is a continuation of the road. This is full tropics: heavily shaded plantations between nicely wooded hillsides very nearby. We think that this valley (see photo) may become a birding destination, as may be the case with other, parallel valleys here as well. We just went a few km along the trail and saw a.o. Saffron-headed Parrot, Masked Tityra, Cinnamon Becard, Bronze-winged Parrot (range extension!), Orange-chinned Parakeet, Citron-throated Toucan, Short-tailed Swift, Red-billed Scytebill, Green Honeycreeper, Golden-crowned Warbler, Southern Nightingale Wren, Green Hermit, Rose-breasted Grosbeak (male), White-necked Jacobin, Green-rumped Parrotlet, Blue-necked Tanager, Black-throated Mango. We also saw and heard flying high overhead a group of sixteen large macaws, in which we could not detect any red, and Military Macaw is possible here according to the above-mentioned Belgian site about Merida.
After a late but huge tipico breakfast at 11 a.m. at Rasomar (the lady understands birders quite well I think) we went on towards the NE, and took a side road to Palmarito, a small resort village at the border of the Maracaibo lake (sea!). In baking midday temperatures we saw along this side road a.o. Grey Kingbird, Hooded Tanager, Savanna Hawk, Fork-tailed Flycatcher. At the shore we only saw Neotropic Cormorant and Great Egret.
The next destination was Bocono, a small city high in the Andes state of Trujillo. This was a 4 hours afternoon drive, the longest of this round trip with rental car from Merida. Bocono is the entrance to the Guaramacal National Park, which according to Hilty (see MLG) has been underestimated by birders. After checking in at the hotel El Jardin (17 dollar) we went into the city to sort out where the road to the park should be found, and had a good meal at the restaurant La Casa Vieja, with its large and nice museum-like collection of things from the past. At dawn the next morning we drove through the city again, and followed MLG's directions painfully in order to find the entrance road for the national park. I think that asking people for the Laguna de los Cedros would also lead you easily there. But then, once on that road, we were disappointed by the horribly bad state of it. We could proceed only at scarcely more than walking speed, especially after the Laguna recreation area near the park guard station. Worse still, it was raining too much to leave the car. However, during short spells of less intensive rain we sneaked out of the car and immediately saw Green-and-Black Fruiteater, Glossy Flowerpiercer, Long-tailed Sylph, Collared Inca, Masked Trogon, Black-capped Tanager, and others. Also, after going back down to the Laguna again (photo of forest behind laguna), where it was it bit drier (higher up we had apparently been inside the clouds), we easily saw species like Summer Tanager, Saffron-crowned Tanager, Black-headed Tanager, Crested Spinetail, Blue-naped Chlorophonia, and a group of 40 Band-tailed Pigeon.
We talked to the park guard and said we would try again the next day. With his help we made an appointment with the owner of the small shop (cafetin) that he would bring us up to the paramo in his 4WD jeep the next morning at 7 a.m., if and only if it would not rain, for 12 dollars. We would slowly walk back then the 10 km road, birding the forest from the tree line down. However, the next morning it was raining again, and we decided to leave the area, which we regretted a lot. This Guaramacal park is really something to come back for. The birding along the road was also good because the cloud forest is not that tall, so you have easy views into the canopy.
So on Sunday 11 Jan. we drove down towards the plains of the Llanos of Barinas, in order to do some birding along the road from Barinas to San Silvestre. This 60 km road has been described here and there as a birding road, and indeed even during the midday hours from 10.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. we saw some 70 species. Bird activity may also have been high because it had been raining here too, and the temperatures were not that high (maybe 27 degrees C; the Llanos can be much hotter). Along the whole road in this flat, half open landscape there were semi-natural ponds, with several herons, Southern Lapwing, Scaled Dove, Brown-throated Parakeet, White-faced Whistling-Duck, Snail Kite, Bare-faced Ibis, Amazon Kingfisher, Ringed Kingfisher, Anhinga, Aplomado Falcon, Troupial. For the rest, this part of the the Llanos is probably too high to contain the real wetland species like they have at the famous lodges more to the East. Photo right is of Yellow-headed Caracara on back of cow.
The whole San Silvestre road was good birding, and certainly also the side road to the North about halfway to San Silvestre. This is a newly asphalted road with few traffic, and it is indicated as leading to three hato's (farms). It replaces an old bad road that begins some 200 m further on towards San S. but this one is good for birding too, as it crosses a stream with some gallery forest, with species like Green Kingfisher, Lineated Woodpecker, Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Squirrel Cuckoo. Along the new side road we saw Horned Screamer (at photo, foreground), Dwarf Cuckoo, King vulture (a pair at 20 m only!). Along the main road, some 300 m before the bridge at San Silvestre, we saw a juvenal Bicolored Hawk in a huge tree with a nest.
From the bridge at San Sylvestre (photo) we observed a.o. Yellow-billed Tern, Red-capped Cardinal, White-winged Swallow, Saffron Finch. Just after the bridge is a small roadside restaurant to the left, we ate the local fish there.
Back in Barinas, we checked in at the hotel Internacional, a clean and spacious hotel with a friendly and professional staff, and a closed parking place. The restaurant was empty, but the food was not as bad as predicted in MLG. The next morning we headed for the Santo Domingo valley back into the Andes again. We had been there before, in 1994, and we only wanted to visit a few places left out then. Moreover it was raining heavily again, and we saw some glimpses of fine weather higher up in the mountains. So we drove straight up to the recent (MLG) Lyre-tailed Nightjar stake-out opposite the start of the so-called La Soledad road. We parked the car in front of the house opposite this steep and narrow road to the left, a few km after the elongated village of La Soledad. The owner of the house came out, and kindly pointed out the nightjar for us, a real treat (although female only), and we gave him a small present from home.
In the mountain village of Sto. Domingo we had delicious pastries and drinks in a bakery at the left, and went on to do the newly described (MLG) so-called Gustavo's trail. We parked our car at the restaurant Las Tapias (some 8 km after Sto. D.) and had to walk back 150 m along the road and then pass a gate to the left. This trail, or rather 4WD track, goes through some nice low elfin forest towards a farm some 1.5 km further on (photo). Here we noted a.o. Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager, Orange-throated Sunangel, Slaty Brush-Finch, Tyrian Metaltail, Collared Jay, Masked Flowerpiercer, Merida Flowerpiercer, Streak-headed Bush-Tyrant, Brown-bellied Swallow. Going back towards Sto. Domingo we had a true andean soup (pizca andina) at the restaurant Maraisa, and climbed the trail opposite the entrance for some 150 m distance, along a stream. Here we had our first Hemispingus ever (Grey-capped), some 7 of them in a mixed flock with Azara Spinetail, Blue-and-black Tanager, Black-capped Tyrannulet, Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant, White-fronted Whitestart. Thus, with these two sites above Sto. Domingo we covered a bit of the upper subtropical forest that we had missed so far. We would have liked to go into the taller elfin forest across the river at Sto. Domingo itself too, but the river is an effective barrier, being also the border of the Sierra Nevada National Park.
We checked in at the famous hotel Los Frailes, a former monastery at a private side road some 15 km above Sto. Domingo. It sits at a small stream and has some pine stands around. A stroll at dusk produced Band-winged Nightjar, as promised by MLG. Los Frailes' restaurant was quite good again (as in 1994), and this time we drank no alcohol, in order to diminish the chance of altitude sickness the next morning. This helped, at 7.30 a.m. we walked on the frozen ground at 4000 m a.s.l., just below the Paso de Aguila (Eagle Pass; photo right with frailejones is from just above the pass). Here is a sort of wide track serving as a 4WD cut off in the winding and rather busy road through this desolate paramo world (but minibuses even here!).
We crisscrossed the low vegetation around the upper part of the track (photo left), and saw Plumbeous Sierra-Finch, Bar-winged Cinclodes, Andean Tit-Spinetail, Paramo Wren, Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant, in one slowly moving flock, searching for food in the first sunrays. Other species here were Merida Sunangel, Paramo Pipit, and a bit lower even Eared Dove, probably the bird with the greatest altitudinal range in Venezuela, or maybe sharing this position with the ubiquitous Rufous-collared Sparrow.
In the later morning hours we visited the Laguna Mucubaji, with their always present Speckled Teals, but a walk along the trail from here to halfway the other lake (Negro) produced nearly no birds. This was to be the slow end of the birding trip. At noon we drove down towards Merida and returned the car at the airport that sits right in the city. After checking in for the flight of 5 p.m. to Caracas, we paid a last visit to this cozy town, for the Mercado principal (market hall) and the famous Coromoto ice saloon. Back in time for the flight, we had to wait till dusk, and then happened what happens two or three times every month: the plane is too late to make a landing here between the mountains, so the departure was displaced to El Vigia, one hour by taxi into the Maracaibo basin! Avensa/Servivensa aranged all things in a professional way, there was a line up of some twenty taxi's to bring us to El Vigia, and on Maiquetia (Caracas airport) they arranged transport and a hotel for us (all free of course), as we now had missed our late connection to Curacao (Netherlands Antilles). The hotel was an expensive sea resort with palms waving in the full moon. At dawn the next morning we were said goodbye by a whole chorus of Great Kiskadee from this palm garden.
Epilogue on public transport versus rental car 
(remark June 2001: Sorry, don't take this too literally. On later trips we mostly tried to have a rental car. Public transport IS well possible indeed. but to maximize your costly birding time, a rental car is better of course. But also very costly as well!)
Looking back on the way we traveled this time, I think that public transport is a realistic option for a birding trip in Venezuela. Venezuelans travel a lot, but many of them don't have a car. Hence the richness of means of public transport as stated in the beginning of this report. Of course, a rental car has the advantage of flexibility. This applies mainly to roadside birding, and only so on a road of reasonable quality. When you leave the car somewhere in the wilderness in order to make a walk in the forest or the fields, you may be bothered about the car all the time. And if a road to a birding destination becomes too bad to drive on with your rental car (non-4WD of course), you would be better off with public transport of the 4WD kind.
In general, minibuses etcetera start early enough in the morning for the birding. Where this is not the case a private taxi was our alternative, like in Caripe. In several cases you would not need to order the taxi for the way back too, as there will often be por puesto minibuses or trucks. BTW, a taxi ride in Venezuela is not always fun, as the driver's driving style may differ markedly from your own.
Even when using taxi's where needed, public transport will always be cheaper than a rental car, which costs about 80 dollars a day. Well, if you are not bothered about these prices, nor bothered about the safety of the car when parked somewhere, then a rental car will be a better option than public transport. But even then, for a superb birding road like in Guaramacal N.P. you will probably need local 4WD public transport anyway. On the other hand, when birding a long and hot road in the Llanos, a car, with airco, is a valuable thing.
When traveling by public transport in all these different ways you need a basic knowledge of Spanish. However,  this needs be very basic only. And for more complicated things like making an appointment with a taxi driver for the next morning, your Spanish vocabulary should be only a bit larger, just draw a clock!
Species list (for both NE and NW)
CC = Caño Colorado: the area seaward of La Pica near Maturin, Monagas
CH = Cerro Humo: Paria National Park at Las Melenas, Sucre
IR = Irapa: coastal area (mainly old plantation) W of Irapa, Sucre
RA = Rio de Agua: the buffalo farm + hills, near Bohordal, Sucre
CA = Caripe and surroundings, Monagas
TB = Tabay: near hotel La Casona and lower Pico Humboldt trail, Merida state
AZ = Azulita road, Merida state
RF = Rio Frio valley, 56 km NE of El Vigía, Zulia/Merida states
PA = Palmarito, at Lago Maracaibo, Zulia
BO = Bocono: lower part of road through Guaramacal N.P., Trujillo state
LL = Llanos: San Sylvestre road + side road, near Barinas
SD = Santo Domingo: valley up to the paramo of Eagle Pass, mostly Merida state

               Little Tinamou  CC       RA CA       RF
                  Least Grebe                    AZ
Neotropic (Olivaceous) Cormorant     IR                PA BO LL
                      Anhinga           RA                   LL
                Brown Pelican        IR
      Magnificent Frigatebird        IR
            Little Blue Heron                                LL
                  Snowy Egret        IR                      LL
                 Capped Heron  CC
             Great Blue Heron        IR
   Cocoi (White-necked) Heron           RA
            Great White Egret  CC       RA             PA    LL SD
                 Cattle Egret  CC                      PA    LL
       Striated (Green) Heron           RA
    Black-crowned Night-heron           RA
                   White Ibis                                LL
                 Scarlet Ibis        IR
 Whispering (Bare-faced) Ibis                                LL
            Roseate Spoonbill                                LL
              Horned Screamer           RA                   LL

   White-faced Whistling-duck                                LL
 Black-bellied Whistling-duck           RA
                 Torrent Duck                 TB
Speckled (Yellow-billed) Teal                                   SD
             Blue-winged Teal           RA                   LL

       American Black Vulture  CC CH    RA    TB       PA
               Turkey Vulture        IR       TB       PA
 Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture           RA
                 King Vulture                                LL
             Hook-billed Kite                 TB AZ
   White-tailed (Bl.Sh.) Kite  CC                            LL
                   Snail Kite                                LL
          Double-toothed Kite              CA
          Long-winged Harrier           RA                   LL
           Sharp-shinned Hawk           RA
              Bicoloured Hawk                                LL
                   White Hawk              CA
            Common Black-hawk        IR    CA
             Great Black-hawk           RA
                Savannah Hawk                          PA    LL
                    Grey Hawk                 TB AZ       BO
                Roadside Hawk  CC    IR    CA
                       Osprey        IR RA    TB
             Crested Caracara        IR RA             PA    LL
       Yellow-headed Caracara  CC             TB             LL
             American Kestrel                 TB       PA
              Aplomado Falcon  CC                            LL
             Peregrine Falcon           RA

     Rufous-vented Chachalaca  CC       RA
                  Andean Guan                 TB
           Helmeted Curassow?                 TB?
             Crested Bobwhite  CC
           Marbled Wood-quail  CC                                   heard only
    American Purple Gallinule  CC
                      Limpkin  CC       RA
               Wattled Jacana           RA             PA
           Black-necked Stilt                                LL
             Southern Lapwing                          PA    LL
  Hudsonian Curlew (Whimbrel)        IR
           Solitary Sandpiper        IR RA
            Spotted Sandpiper           RA
                Laughing Gull        IR
           Yellow-billed Tern                                LL

           Band-tailed Pigeon     CH          TB          BO
           Pale-vented Pigeon                                LL
                 Ruddy Pigeon  CC                AZ
                   Eared Dove                                   SD
                  Scaled Dove                                LL
            Ruddy Ground-dove                                LL
            White-tipped Dove  CC          CA TB             LL
            Grey-fronted Dove  CC

        Blue-and-yellow Macaw  CC
          Red-and-green Macaw  CC
         Red-shouldered Macaw  CC
               Military Macaw                       RF?
     Scarlet-fronted Parakeet           RA CA
White-eared (Maroon-faced) Parakeet        CA
         Rose-headed Parakeet                    AZ
       Green-rumped Parrotlet  CC                   RF
       Golden-winged Parakeet     CH                                id.mainly sound
        Saffron-headed Parrot                       RF
           Rusty-faced Parrot                 TB
         Bronze-winged Parrot                       RF              range extension
        Yellow-crowned Parrot  CC
         Orange-winged Parrot  CC       RA CA

                 Dwarf Cuckoo                                LL
              Squirrel Cuckoo              CA                LL
            Smooth-billed Ani  CC                AZ
            Groove-billed Ani  CC
               Striped Cuckoo  CC             TB

         Tropical Screech-owl                 TB
                  Mottled Owl     CH
                      Oilbird              CA
                     Pauraque  CC
              Rufous Nightjar                 TB                    heard only
         Band-winged Nightjar                                   SD  heard only
         Lyre-tailed Nightjar                                   SD

      Chestnut-collared Swift                 TB
         White-chinned Swift?                          PA?
                 Vaux's Swift              CA
           Short-tailed Swift  CC                   RF
           White-tipped Swift                 TB
       Fork-tailed Palm-swift  CC

       Rufous-breasted Hermit  CC    IR
                 Green Hermit              CA       RF
               Reddish Hermit  CC
                Little Hermit  CC
       White-tailed Sabrewing     CH
         White-necked Jacobin                       RF
         Black-throated Mango                       RF
 Blue-tailed (Common) Emerald                 TB
        Fork-tailed Woodnymph              CA
  Glittering-throated Emerald  CC
    Copper-rumped Hummingbird        IR    CA
    Rufous-tailed Hummingbird                    AZ
         Speckled Hummingbird                    AZ       BO
     Violet-fronted Brilliant                    AZ
   Scissor-tailed Hummingbird     CH
                Collared Inca                 TB AZ
     Orange-throated Sunangel                                   SD
              Merida Sunangel                 TB                SD
           Booted Racket-tail                 TB
             Tyrian Metaltail                                   SD
            Long-tailed Sylph                 TB AZ       BO
            Black-eared Fairy           RA
       Long-billed Starthroat        IR    CA
      Rufous-shafted Woodstar                 TB

        Golden-headed Quetzal                 TB                    heard only
          White-tailed Trogon  CC
              Collared Trogon              CA       RF
                Masked Trogon                 TB          BO

            Ringed Kingfisher  CC                            LL
            Amazon Kingfisher                                LL
             Green Kingfisher                                LL

        Rufous-tailed Jacamar  CC    IR
                 Swallow-wing  CC
             Emerald Toucanet                    AZ       BO
       Groove-billed Toucanet     CH       CA
       Citron-throated Toucan                       RF
        Channel-billed Toucan  CC
       Black-mandibled Toucan                       RF
Red-billed (White-throated) TouCC       RA

               Scaled Piculet           RA
       Red-crowned Woodpecker  CC    IR    CA       RF
       Smoky-brown Woodpecker                 TB          BO
      Golden-olive Woodpecker     CH
     Spot-breasted Woodpecker  CC
          Lineated Woodpecker  CC          CA                LL
   Crimson-crested Woodpecker  CC                                   heard only

       Olivaceous Woodcreeper  CC          CA
     Black-banded Woodcreeper              CA
    Buff-throated Woodcreeper     CH
     Olive-backed Woodcreeper                 TB
    Streak-headed Woodcreeper  CC          CA                LL
Spot-crowned (Montane) Woodcreeper            TB          BO
        Red-billed Scythebill                       RF

         Bar-winged Cinclodes                                   SD
         Andean Tit-spinetail                                   SD
            Azara's Spinetail                 TB AZ             SD
      Pale-breasted Spinetail              CA
             Rufous Spinetail                 TB
    Stripe-breasted Spinetail     CH                                heard only
            Crested Spinetail                             BO
     Yellow-chinned Spinetail        IR RA
              Plain Thornbird  CC                            LL
      White-throated Barbtail     CH
      Montane Foliage-gleaner                    AZ
                 Plain Xenops  CC

              Great Antshrike  CC
      Black-crested Antshrike        IR RA
             Barred Antshrike  CC    IR RA
      Eastern Slaty Antshrike  CC
        White-flanked Antwren  CC
                Slaty Antwren     CH
        White-fringed Antwren        IR
                  Jet Antbird  CC
        Black-chinned Antbird  CC
             Silvered Antbird  CC
        White-bellied Antbird           RA CA                       heard only
        Black-faced Antthrush     CH
        Plain-backed Antpitta     CH                                heard only
    Chestnut-crowned Antpitta                 TB AZ       BO
       Slate-crowned Antpitta     CH

   Green-and-black Fruiteater                             BO
          Handsome Fruiteater     CH                                heard only

       Crimson-hooded Manakin  CC
        Golden-headed Manakin     CH
         Lance-tailed Manakin     CH

     Olive-striped Flycatcher                    AZ
       Common Tody-flycatcher  CC       RA          RF
      Black-capped Tyrannulet                                   SD
            Paltry Tyrannulet                             BO
            Yellow Tyrannulet  CC
       Yellow-bellied Elaenia        IR
        Plain-crested Elaenia              CA
             Mountain Elaenia                             BO
    White-throated Tyrannulet                 TB          BO    SD
      White-banded Tyrannulet                 TB
           Torrent Tyrannulet                 TB
       Pale-eyed Pygmy-tyrant  CC
      Yellow-olive Flycatcher              CA
   Yellow-breasted Flycatcher        IR
          Cinnamon Flycatcher     CH       CA
           Euler's Flycatcher  CC
Smoke-coloured (Greater) Pewee                TB AZ             SD
                 Black Phoebe              CA TB          BO    SD
        Vermillion Flycatcher           RA
   Yellow-bellied Chat-tyrant                 TB AZ
     Brown-backed Chat-tyrant                                   SD
  Streak-throated Bush-tyrant                 TB                SD
            Pied Water-tyrant           RA                   LL
    White-headed Marsh-tyrant  CC       RA
                Cattle Tyrant           RA    TB
              Cinnamon Attila  CC
         Bright-rumped Attila     CH                RF              heard only
            Cinereous Mourner  CC
     Short-crested Flycatcher  CC
            Tropical Kingbird  CC             TB          BO LL
       Fork-tailed Flycatcher                          PA
                Grey Kingbird                          PA    LL
        Variegated Flycatcher  CC          CA
       Boat-billed Flycatcher              CA TB
    Golden-crowned Flycatcher              CA
    Rusty-margined Flycatcher  CC                   RF
            Social Flycatcher                       RF    
              Lesser Kiskadee  CC
               Great Kiskadee  CC          CA                LL     on more sites ...
              Cinnamon Becard                       RF?             or One-coloroured
          Black-tailed Tityra  CC
                Masked Tityra                       RF

         White-winged Swallow        IR RA                   LL
         Grey-breasted Martin           RA                   LL
        Brown-bellied Swallow                                   SD
       Blue-and-white Swallow                 TB AZ       BO
         Tawny-headed Swallow              CA
Southern Rough-winged Swallow  CC       RA
                 Barn Swallow           RA                   LL

                 Paramo Pipit                                   SD
          White-capped Dipper                 TB                SD

      Black-capped Donacobius  CC
              Bicoloured Wren              CA                LL
           Stripe-backed Wren  CC
         Merida (Paramo) Wren                                   SD
              Moustached Wren                 TB AZ
         Rufous-breasted Wren     CH IR
        Rufous-and-white Wren           RA                          heard only
           Buff-breasted Wren  CC                            LL
          Southern House Wren           RA    TB    RF    BO
      Grey-breasted Wood-wren                 TB AZ
    Southern Nightingale-wren                       RF              heard only

         Tropical Mockingbird           RA CA TB             LL
             Andean Solitaire                 TB                    heard only
Orange-billed Nightingale-thrush              TB
Slaty-backed Nightingale-thrush               TB
            Swainson's Thrush                 TB
         Yellow-legged Thrush              CA TB
                 Great Thrush                 TB
          Glossy-black Thrush                    AZ       BO
      Chestnut-bellied Thrush                    AZ
         Pale-breasted Thrush        IR    CA
          White-necked Thrush     CH

           Black-collared Jay                                   SD
            Black-chested Jay                    AZ RF
                    Green Jay              CA TB

   Rufous-browed Peppershrike        IR    CA
           Brown-capped Vireo                    AZ
        Yellow-bellied Siskin           RA    TB
             Lesser Goldfinch                 TB
            Tennessee Warbler                 TB
              Tropical Parula     CH IR    CA
 Black-throated Green Warbler                 TB
         Blackburnian Warbler                 TB AZ
      Black-and-white Warbler     CH          TB          BO
            American Redstart     CH       CA       RF
         Northern Waterthrush     CH IR    CA
      Slate-throated Redstart              CA TB AZ
Paria (Yellow-faced) Redstart     CH
       White-fronted Redstart                 TB                SD
        Black-crested Warbler                 TB                SD
       Russet-crowned Warbler                 TB
       Golden-crowned Warbler              CA       RF
        Three-striped Warbler     CH          TB
                   Bananaquit  CC CH       CA TB

               Magpie Tanager                       RF
          Common Bush-tanager                 TB AZ
      Grey-capped Hemispingus                                   SD
       Fulvous-headed Tanager              CA
               Hooded Tanager                          PA
     White-shouldered Tanager  CC
          White-lined Tanager              CA TB
               Summer Tanager                             BO
         White-winged Tanager              CA
       Crimson-backed Tanager                       RF
        Silver-beaked Tanager  CC
            Blue-grey Tanager  CC CH       CA TB
                 Palm Tanager  CC          CA
          Blue-capped Tanager     CH       CA    AZ       BO
   Lacrimose Mountain-tanager                                   SD
        Fawn-breasted Tanager                    AZ
            Trinidad Euphonia  CC CH
          Violaceous Euphonia  CC
      Orange-bellied Euphonia                    AZ
      Blue-naped Chlorophonia              CA             BO
      Saffron-crowned Tanager                             BO
             Speckled Tanager     CH       CA
           Bay-headed Tanager              CA       RF
       Burnished-buff Tanager              CA
          Blue-necked Tanager                       RF    BO
       Beryl-spangled Tanager                 TB AZ       BO
       Blue-and-black Tanager                    AZ             SD
         Black-capped Tanager                             BO
         Black-headed Tanager                 TB          BO
           Green Honeycreeper              CA       RF

      Rufous-collared Sparrow                 TB                SD
       Moustached Brush-finch                 TB
            Slaty Brush-finch                                   SD
  Chestnut-capped Brush-finch                 TB
          Red-capped Cardinal                                LL
       Plumbeous Sierra-finch                                   SD
                Saffron Finch                                LL
         Blue-black Grassquit  CC                            LL
               Grey Seedeater  CC
     Ruddy-breasted Seedeater           RA                   LL
Lesser (Thick-billed) Seed-fincCC          CA       RF
        Yellow-browed Sparrow                                LL

         Rusty Flower-piercer                 TB
   White-sided Flower-piercer                 TB
        Glossy Flower-piercer                             BO
Merida (Coal-bl) Flower-piercer                                 SD
        Bluish Flower-piercer                 TB
        Masked Flower-piercer                                   SD

                   Dickcissel                                LL
       Rose-breasted Grosbeak                       RF
             Greyish Saltator  CC                   RF       LL
         Ultramarine Grosbeak  CC          CA

           Crested Oropendola  CC    IR    CA                LL!
        Yellow-rumped Cacique  CC          CA                LL
         Yellow-backed Oriole                    AZ
                Yellow Oriole  CC                            LL
         Yellow-tailed Oriole                       RF
        Orange-crowned Oriole              CA       RF
                     Troupial                                LL
             Oriole Blackbird              CA                LL
       Red-breasted Blackbird           RA                   LL
       Velvet-fronted Grackle  CC
                Carib Grackle  CC                            LL
                Shiny Cowbird                    AZ          LL
                Giant Cowbird           RA    TB?AZ